ELD is a useful managment tool where it logs and transmits the truck location, speed, and idle-time, etc. This electronic device is hooked to a truck and is a cost effective alternative to traditional paper based logging.
Earlier, this device was called Electronic on-board recorder (EOBR). In 2015, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) introduced this new term ELD and officially replace the term in December 2019.
In United States, drive time and rest periods for commercial truck drivers are regulated by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Truck owners must ensure that truck drivers must keep, detailed logs of their HOS (Hours Of Service) by law. Driver fitness is a key element in road safety. HOS reduces road accidents caused by driver fatigueness and distractions. ELD (Electronic Logging Device) is used to log and transmit HOS automatically.
ELD can be considered as a 'black box' for trucks, hence the terms 'EDR (Event Data Recorder)', 'Digital Tachograph' and 'Automatic On-Board Recording Device (AOBRD)'' are used. It's worth emphasising that all fleet management devices and vehicle tracking devices are not recognized as ELDs.
ELDs are capable to track a wide variety of metrics:
It is necessary to hardwire ELD to the truck's engine for accurate data. Also drivers must be able to select their duty status (On, Off, On but Not Driving). Most importantly, data must be able to transmit via wireless/bluetooth.